Prospect of hydrogen energy in Asia-Pacific: A perspective review on techno-socio-economy nexus

This paper reviews the prospect to institute the inter-state hydrogen energy system on selected countries in Asia-Pacific region, through individual evaluation from the nexus of technology, social and economy perspectives, and further utilizing the respective strengths to identify the inter-state hydrogen network strategy in Asia-Pacific region, or ‘Asia-Pacific Hydrogen Valley’. Domestic energy self-sufficiency based on the existing energy sources produced nationally is also considered in the review. In looking into the prospective of hydrogen energy system adoption, four indicators are set based on domestic energy capacity, national wealth, society development and research and development (R&D), which are generalized according to the population size of the country. Countries of assessment are Indonesia, Malaysia, Brunei Darussalam, Philippines, Singapore, Vietnam, Thailand, Japan, South Korea, Australia and New Zealand. This study reveals that nations with active hydrogen policies and high R&D capacity could lead the strategy, while countries with high capacity in primary energy supply and economy advantage would benefit the group in catering the energy and commercial resources, respectively. Social acceptance is another critical aspect, as countries with high social security index could potentially reduce the risk of public rebuttal against the energy system transformation. This paper also extensively discusses the existing energy profile, policies and strategies of each country, which become the basis in potential identification of the country to adopt the new hydrogen energy system in the future.